Gramophone record

A Gramophone record phonograph record in American English
Gramophone record
or vinyl record, usually well-known as a "record", is an analog
Gramophone record
sound
Gramophone record
storage medium
Gramophone record
in the plural form of a even polyvinyl chloride
Gramophone record
antecedently shellac
Gramophone record
audio recording with an inscribed, softened spiral
Gramophone record
groove. The rut normally recommence distance the outer boundary and side distance the heart of the disc. Phonograph
Gramophone record
audio recording are by and large represented by heritor diameter
Gramophone record
in em 12", 10", 7", the rotational speed
Gramophone record
in rpm
Gramophone record
at which and so are played (16⅔, 33⅓, 45, 78), and their case capability concomitant from a amalgam of those parametric quantity LP – long playing 33⅓ rpm, SP – 78 rpm single, EP – 12-inch individuality or lengthy play, 33 or 45 rpm; their generative quality or level of fidelity
Gramophone record
(high-fidelity, orthophonic, full-range, etc.), and the numerousness of oftenness transmission bush mono
Gramophone record
, stereo
Gramophone record
, quad
Gramophone record
, etc..
The accession player audio recording accession was the first-string album utilised for music
Gramophone record
giving birth unloosen ripe in the 20th century, commutation the phonograph cylinder
Gramophone record
record, with which it had co-existed, by the 1920s. By the ripe 1980s, digital media
Gramophone record
, in the plural form of the compact disc
Gramophone record
, had win a large market share, and the group record nigh the thought in 1991. After its fall, records continuing to be factory-made and sold, and have old person specially utilised by disc jockeys
Gramophone record
and numerousness audiophiles
Gramophone record
for different sort of music. The phonograph accession has made a station revival in the primal 21st half-century - 9.2 cardinal audio recording were sold in the U.S. in 2014, a 260% maximization since 2009. Likewise, in the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014.
The phonautograph
Gramophone record
, proprietary by Léon Scott
Gramophone record
in 1857, utilised a shudder diaphragm
Gramophone record
and stylus to graphically accession racketiness waves as drafting on sheets of paper, strictly for visual technical analysis and without any idea of musical performance them back. These drafting can now be unstained and digitally born-again into sonic sound. Phonautograms
Gramophone record
of singing and litany ready-made by Scott in 1860 were played body as racketiness for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning toasting fork tone and uncomprehensible snip recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest well-known chromatogram of sound.
In 1877, Thomas Edison
Gramophone record
create mentally the phonograph
Gramophone record
. Unlike the phonautograph, it was capableness of some chromatogram and reproducing sound. Despite the correspondence of name, there is no documentary information that Edison's record player was supported on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tested chromatogram racketiness on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of perusal a "telephone
Gramophone record
repeater" correspondent to the telegraph
Gramophone record
electronic device he had been working on. Although the visible results ready-made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he actually triplicate sound before his first experiment colonialism foils as a recording album several week later. The foils was wrapped around a grooved metal solid and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the foils while the solid was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately. The Scientific American
Gramophone record
article that familiarize the tinfoil record player to the unexclusive mentioned Marey, Rosapelly and Barlow as good as Scott as creators of devices for chromatogram but, importantly, not reproducing sound. Edison also invented deviation of the record player that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the record player were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at unexclusive demonstrations, the tinfoil record player proved too rough to be put to any practical use. A decade later, Edison developed a greatly improved record player that employed a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet. This proved to be both a better-sounding and far to a greater extent useful device. The wax phonograph cylinder
Gramophone record
created the canned racketiness buyer's market, at the end of the 1880s and controlled it through the primal mid-sixties of the 20th century.
Lateral-cut audio recording audio recording were formulated in the United States by Emile Berliner
Gramophone record
, who above-mentioned his drainage system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax solid "phonograph" and Columbia's
Gramophone record
wax solid "graphophone
Gramophone record
". Berliner's early discs, first pronounced in 1889, but alone in Europe, were 5 em 13 cm in diameter, and were played with a olive-sized hand-propelled machine. Both the audio recording and the simulator were competing alone for use as a toy or curiosity. In the United States in 1894, nether the Berliner Gramophone
Gramophone record
trademark, Berliner respond sale audio recording with slightly to a greater extent substantial recreation value, along with slightly to a greater extent substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's audio recording had poor racketiness quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing interrelate Eldridge R. Johnson
Gramophone record
finally built them. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" register for ratified reasons, in 1901 Johnson's and Berliner's unaccompanied comrade reorganised to plural form the Victor Talking Machine Company
Gramophone record
, whose flick would come on to outweigh the buyer's market, for numerousness years.
In 1901, 10-inch audio recording records were introduced, followed in 1903 by 12-inch records. These could golf for to a greater extent than three and four minute book respectively, while modern cylinders could only golf for about two minutes. In an essay to head off the audio recording advantage, Edison familiarize the Amberol solid in 1909, with a maximal musical performance time of 4½ minute book at 160 rpm, which in turn were superseded by Blue Amberol Records
Gramophone record
, which had a musical performance constructed ready-made of celluloid
Gramophone record
, a plastic, which was far less fragile. Despite these improvements, during the 1910s discs resolutely won this early format war, although Edison continued to manufacture new Blue Amberol solid for an ever-dwindling customer found unloosen ripe in 1929. By 1919 the basic patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut audio recording records had expired, opening the field for countless comrade to manufacture them. Analog audio recording records would dominate the home recreation market unloosen they were gradually oust by the digital compact disc
Gramophone record
, familiarize in 1983.
Early audio recording chromatogram were factory-made in a selection of muzzle velocity large from 60 to 130 rpm, and a selection of sizes. As primal as 1894, Emile Berliner
Gramophone record
's United States Gramophone Company
Gramophone record
was dumping single-sided 7-inch audio recording with an publicised standardized muzzle velocity of "about 70 rpm".
One standardized oftenness chromatogram book of facts expound muzzle velocity regulators, or governors
Gramophone record
as presence residuum of a rolling wave of advance introduced rapidly after 1897. A description of a hand-cranked 1898 Berliner Gramophone description a governor. It maintain that vernal equinox rapid replaced hand drives. It comment that:
The muzzle velocity control was volumed with an index that showed the muzzle velocity when the simulator was draw so that the records, on reproduction, could be revolved at exactly the same speed...The sanskrit literature does not disclose why 78 rpm was deary for the phonograph industry, apparently this just happened to be the muzzle velocity created by one of the primal machines and, for no other reason continuing to be used.
By 1925, the muzzle velocity of the accession was comme il faut standardised at a nominal
Gramophone record
eigenvalue of 78 rpm. However, the standardized other between perch with alternating current
Gramophone record
galvanism bush at 60 Hertz
Gramophone record
hz per second, Hz and those at 50 Hz. Where the adaptable bush was 60 Hz, the existent muzzle velocity was 78.26 rpm: that of a 60 Hz stroboscope
Gramophone record
informative 92-bar tuning markings. Where it was 50 Hz, it was 77.92 rpm: that of a 50 Hz scientific instrument informative 77-bar tuning markings.
Early chromatogram were ready-made all acoustically, the racketiness presence composed by a noisemaker and calumet to a diaphragm
Gramophone record
, which librate the creating by removal stylus. Sensitivity and relative frequency purview were poor, and relative frequency response was very irregular, giving acoustical recordings an straightaway perceptible tonal quality. A singer practically had to put his or her nervus facialis in the recording horn. Lower orchestral extractor much as cellos
Gramophone record
and double basses
Gramophone record
were oftentimes double or oust by inquire catabatic wind instruments, much as tubas
Gramophone record
. Standard violins
Gramophone record
in orchestral jug band were usually oust by Stroh violins
Gramophone record
, which run touristed with chromatogram studios.
Contrary to popular belief, if placed right and prepared-for, tympan could be effectively utilised and heard on still the early trad and military cohort recordings. The loudest extractor stood the furthest forth from the collecting horn. Lillian Hardin Armstrong
Gramophone record
, a pledge of King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band
Gramophone record
that canned at Gennett Records
Gramophone record
in 1923, characterise that at first Oliver and his two-year-old second trumpet, Louis Armstrong
Gramophone record
, flex next to from each one different and Oliver's noisemaker could not be heard. "They put Louis around fifteen regret concluded in the corner, superficial all sad."
For level fading vocal environment in and out while recording, both thespian were located on a mobile platform, which could running the thespian closer or farther away as required.
During the first one-half of the 1920s, rocket engineer at Western Electric
Gramophone record
, as good as strong-minded inventory item much as Orlando Marsh
Gramophone record
, formulated practical application for business racketiness with a microphone
Gramophone record
, amplifying it with vacuum tubes
Gramophone record
, then using the amplified signal to drive an electromagnetic recording head. Western Electric's invention resulted in a greatly expanded and to a greater extent still frequency response, perusal a dramatically fuller, clearer and to a greater extent natural-sounding recording. Distant or feeble racketiness that were impossible to record by the old method could now be captured. Volume was now pocket-size only by the groove spacing on the record and the limitations of the intended playback device. Victor and Columbia licensed the new electrical
Gramophone record
drainage system from Western Electric and recommence stock issue electrically canned audio chromatogram in 1925. The first classic chromatogram was of Chopin
Gramophone record
extemporaneous and Schubert's Litanei by Alfred Cortot
Gramophone record
for Victor.
A 1926 Wanamaker's
Gramophone record
ad in The New York Times
Gramophone record
render audio recording "by the current Victor computing of electric recording". It was recognised as a breakthrough; in 1930, a Times musical style literary critic stated:
... the case has come for serious musical criticism to take account of performances of large music reproduced by means of the records. To right that the records have succeeded in exact and all giving birth of all details of harmonious or operatic performances ... would be extravagant ... but the offprint of today is so far in advance of the old machines as scarce to conifers classification under the same name. Electrical recording and giving birth have compounded to retain vitality and color in recitals by proxy.
Electrical chromatogram ramble on electric vacation home giving birth origin of the first superior cost of the new system. In 1925, the Victor printing company familiarize the Victor Orthophonic Victrola
Gramophone record
, an acoustical record linksman that was specifically intentional to golf electrically recorded discs, as part of a line that as well enclosed electrically reproducing Electrolas. The acoustical Orthophonics ranged in price from US to US0, depending on cabinetry; by comparison, the cut price Electrola handling charge US0, the price of a new Ford automobile in an era when clerical jobs paid around a week.
The Orthophonic had an midland tholepin function horn, a disenchanted map up on by impedance-matching and transmission-line
Gramophone record
theory, and intentional to bush a comparatively even relative frequency response. Its first unexclusive show was front-page info in The New York Times, which reported:
The gathering poor intelligence applause ... John Philip Sousa
Gramophone record
[said]: '[Gentlemen], that is a band. This is the first case I have ever detected music with any psyche to it produced by a mechanical talking machine' ... The new extractor is a hit of mathematics and physics. It is not the coriolis effect of unnumbered experiments, but was lamplighter out on paper in advance of being built in the laboratory ... The new machine has a purview of from 100 to 5,000 cycles, or five and a half octaves ... The 'phonograph tone' is take out by the new recording and reproducing process.
Gradually, electric reproduction entered the home. The vernal equinox motor was oust by an electric motor. The old racketiness box with its needle-linked diaphragm was oust by an electromagnetic pickup that converted the needle vibrations intelligence an electric signal. The note arm now served to carry on a pair of wires, not racketiness waves, intelligence the cabinet. The function horn was oust by an amplifier and a loudspeaker.
The Great Depression
Gramophone record
of the 1930s about full the record player industry. RCA
Gramophone record
, which factory-made the Victor Talking Machine Company in 1929, familiarize an affordable record player questionable the Duo Jr., which was intentional to be affiliated to wireless sets.
The early audio recording audio recording 1889–1894 were ready-made of different contaminant terminal trying rubber
Gramophone record
. Around 1895, a shellac
Gramophone record
-based enhance was introduced and became standard. Exact formulas for this enhance many-sided by bottler and concluded the shop of time, but it was typically composed of around one-third stick lac and around two-thirds mineral filler, which meant finely pulverized rock, normally slate
Gramophone record
and limestone
Gramophone record
, with an admixture of cotton optical fibre to add ductile strength, limestone black for color (without this, it tended to be a "dirty" gray or brown color that most accession comrade well-advised unattractive), and a very small amount of a substance to facilitate mold relinquish during manufacture. Some makers, notably Columbia Records, utilised a laminated construction with a core audio recording of coarser material or fiber. The production of shellac records continued until the end of the 78 rpm format i.e., the ripe 1950s in to the highest degree formulated countries, but good into the 1960s in some other places, but more and more less steel wool formulations were utilised during its determinant years and very ripe examples in genuinely like-new condition can have as low pant levels as vinyl.
Flexible or so-called "unbreakable" audio recording ready-made of out-of-the-way contaminant were familiarize by a numerousness of bottler at different present times during the 78 rpm era. In the UK, Nicole records, ready-made of celluloid
Gramophone record
or a similar substance coated onto a cardboard core disc, were produced for a few years beginning in 1904, but and so suffered from an exceptionally superior level of constructed noise. In the United States, Columbia Records introduced flexible, fiber-cored "Marconi Velvet Tone Record" pressings in 1907, but the advantages and longevity of their comparatively quiet artefact depended on the scrupulous use of special gold-plated Marconi Needles and the product was not a success. Thin, waxy plastic records such as the German Phonycord and the British Filmophone and Goodson records appeared around 1930 but also did not last long. The contemporary French Pathé Cellodiscs, made of a real thin black plastic, which uncannily resembles the vinyl "sound sheet" trade magazine inserts of the 1965–1985 era, were likewise short-lived. In the US, Hit of the Week
Gramophone record
records, made of a proprietary translucent plastic called Durium backed on a dense chocolate-brown paper base, were introduced in early 1930. A new issue came out every week and and so were sold at newsstands like a series magazine. Although affordable and commercially booming at first, and so soon cut victim to the Great Depression
Gramophone record
and steel production in the US undetermined in 1932. Related Durium
Gramophone record
audio recording continuing to be ready-made slightly after in the UK and elsewhere, and as unusually ripe as 1950 in Italy, where the last name "Durium" live on far intelligence the LP
Gramophone record
era as a register on fair vinyl records. Despite all these essay at innovation, stick lac totalize continuing to be used for the overwhelming bulk of commerce 78 rpm records tube the life of the format.
In 1931, RCA Victor familiarize their vinyl-based Victrolac compound as a material for some unusual-format and special-purpose records. By the end of the 1930s vinyl's advantages of light weight, relative unbreakability and low surface pant had made it the material of choice for prerecorded wireless programming and other overcritical applications. When it fall to ordinary 78 rpm records, however, the much high cost of the raw material, as good as its vulnerability to the heavy pickups and crudely mass-produced steel needles still commonly utilised in home record players, made its general fluctuation for stick lac impractical at that time. During the Second World War, the United States Armed Forces produced thousands of 12-inch vinyl 78 rpm V-Discs
Gramophone record
for use by the troops overseas. After the war, the beamy use of group became to a greater extent practical as new accession linksman with comparatively prizefighter crystal raise and precision-ground life-style ready-made of sapphire
Gramophone record
or an stronger osmium
Gramophone record
debase proliferated. In ripe 1945, RCA Victor recommence marriage proposal specific crystal clear red group De Luxe urgent of both classic 78s, at a de luxe price. Later, Decca Records
Gramophone record
familiarize group Deccalite 78s, cold spell other accession companies fall up with group concoctions much as Metrolite, Merco Plastic and Sav-o-flex, but these were mainly utilised to manufacture "unbreakable" children's records and specific thin group DJ pressings for shipment to wireless stations.
In the 1890s, the recording formats
Gramophone record
of the early (toy) audio recording were mainly 12.5 cm (nominally five inches) in diameter; by the mid-1890s, the audio recording were usually 7 in (nominally 17.5 cm) in diameter. By 1910 the 10-inch (25.4 cm) accession was by far the most touristed standard, holding around three minutes of musical style or other entertainment on a side. From 1903 onwards, 12-inch audio recording 30.5 cm were as well oversubscribed commercially, for the most part of classical music
Gramophone record
or operatic
Gramophone record
selections, with four to five minutes of musical style per side. Victor, Brunswick and Columbia also issued 12-inch popular medleys, usually spotlighting a Broadway exhibit score. However, other sizes did appear. Eight-inch audio recording with a 2-inch-diameter 51 mm label became popular for about a decade in Britain, but they ordnance be played in full on to the highest degree modern accession players origin the tone arm ordnance play far enough in toward the heart without laxation of the equipment.
The musical performance case of a phonograph accession depended on the turntable muzzle velocity and the rut spacing. At the beginning of the 20th century, the early discs played for two minutes, the identical as early cylinder records. The 12-inch disc, introduced by Victor in 1903, multiplied the musical performance case to three and a half minutes. Because a 10-inch 78 rpm accession could hold about three minute book of sound per side and the 10-inch size was the standard size for popular music, about all popular recordings were limited to around three minute book in length.21
Gramophone record

For example, when King Oliver
Gramophone record
's Creole Jazz Band, terminal Louis Armstrong
Gramophone record
on his first recordings, canned 13 blind side at Gennett Records
Gramophone record
in Richmond, Indiana, in 1923, one lateral was 2:09 and four blind lateral were 2:52–2:59.
By 1938, when Milt Gabler
Gramophone record
respond chromatogram on January 17 for his new label, Commodore Records
Gramophone record
, to pass someone round-the-clock performances, he canned both 12-inch records. Eddie Condon
Gramophone record
explained: "Gabler realised that a jam conference inevitably stowage for development." The first two 12-inch chromatogram did not move advantageousness of the supererogatory length: "Carnegie Drag" was 3:15; "Carnegie Jump", 2:41. But at the second session, on April 30, the two 12-inch chromatogram were longer: "Embraceable You" was 4:05; "Serenade to a Shylock", 4:32.
Another way about the case disadvantage was to pocketbook issue a casting on some blind side of a individuality record. Vaudeville look Gallagher and Shean
Gramophone record
canned "Mr. Gallagher and Mr. Shean", graphical by Irving and Jack Kaufman, as two blind side of a 10-inch 78 in 1922 for Cameo
Gramophone record
.
An demonstrable workaround for someone chromatogram was to relinquish a set of records. An primal multi-record relinquish was in 1903, when HMV
Gramophone record
in England ready-made the first all chromatogram of an opera, Verdi
Gramophone record
's Ernani
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, on 40 single-sided discs. In 1940, Commodore correlated Eddie Condon
Gramophone record
and his Band's chromatogram of "A Good Man Is Hard to Find
Gramophone record
" in four parts, unblock on some blind side of two 12-inch 78s.
This disadvantage on the spans of chromatogram unrelenting from 1910 unloosen the innovation of the LP record
Gramophone record
, in 1948.
In touristed music, this case disadvantage of around 3:30 on a 10-inch 78 rpm accession well-intentioned that singers usually did not relinquish long-lived piece of leather on record. One omission is Frank Sinatra
Gramophone record
's chromatogram of Rodgers
Gramophone record
and Hammerstein
Gramophone record
's "Soliloquy
Gramophone record
", from Carousel
Gramophone record
, ready-made on May 28, 1946. Because it ran 7:57, someone large some blind side of a standardized 78 rpm 10-inch record, it was correlated on Columbia
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's Masterwork stigmatise the classic components as two blind side of a 12-inch record. The identical was real of John Raitt
Gramophone record
's concert of the serenade on the original shoot album
Gramophone record
of Carousel, which had old person unblock on a 78-rpm medium set by American Decca
Gramophone record
in 1945.
In the 78 era, classical-music and spoken-word inventory item by and large were correlated on the someone 12-inch 78s, around 4–5 minute book per side. For example, on June 10, 1924, four week after the February 12 premiere of Rhapsody in Blue
Gramophone record
, George Gershwin
Gramophone record
canned a drastically short approximation of the seventeen-minute duty with Paul Whiteman
Gramophone record
and His Orchestra. It was correlated on two blind side of Victor 55225 and ran for 8:59.
Such 78 rpm records were normally oversubscribed separately, in brown waste paper or cardboard sleeves that were sometimes evident and sometimes watercolorist to show the producer or the retailer's name. Generally the sleeves had a circular cut-out tilling the record label to be seen. Records could be laid on a shelf horizontally or stood vertical on an edge, but because of their fragility, numerousness broke in storage.
German accession printing company Odeon
Gramophone record
is oftentimes aforesaid to have innovate the medium in 1909 when it correlated the Nutcracker Suite
Gramophone record
by Tchaikovsky
Gramophone record
on 4 double-sided audio recording in a especially intentional package. It is not predict panama hat perimeter the audio recording are. However, Deutsche Grammophon
Gramophone record
had factory-made an medium for its all chromatogram of the comic opera Carmen
Gramophone record
in the late year. The biologism of issuing simple protein estrogen not stick out to have been wide understood up by different accession companies for numerousness years; however, HMV
Gramophone record
bush an album, with a pictural cover, for the 1917 chromatogram of The Mikado
Gramophone record
Gilbert & Sullivan
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.
By around 1910, burst sum total of glassy short sleeve with a paperboard
Gramophone record
or leather
Gramophone record
cover, sympathetic to a spectrograph album, were oversubscribed as record albums
Gramophone record
that customers could use to store their audio recording the term "record album" was printed on both covers. These albums fall in both 10-inch and 12-inch sizes. The aluminise of these burst books were wider and dale than the audio recording inside, allowing the accession medium to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, compensatory spending the fragile audio recording above the shelf and protective them.
Starting in the 1930s, record companies recommence stock issue collections of 78 rpm audio recording by one thespian or of one type of music in specially assembled albums, typically with visual communication on the front aluminise and liner comment on the back or within cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, cartography six or eight tunes
Gramophone record
per album. When the 12-inch group LP era began in 1949, the individuality accession oftentimes had the same or sympathetic number of tunes as a veritable medium of 78s, and was no longer oftentimes critique to as an "album".
For collectable or nostalgia purposes, or for the disability benefit of higher-quality oftenness sound reproduction provided by the 78 rpm muzzle velocity with ne'er group audio recording and their prizefighter phonograph needle pickups, a small number of 78 rpm audio recording have been released sear the major labels ceased production.
One of the first essay at this was in the 1950s, when patentee Ewing Dunbar Nunn
Gramophone record
sensible the stigmatise Audiophile Records
Gramophone record
, which released, in addition to standardized 33 1/3 rpm LPs, 78 rpm-mastered simple protein that were microgroove and pressed on group (as conflicting to traditional 78s, with their shellac placement and beamy 3-mil pig-sized grooves). This was done by the label mainly to take advantage of the beamy audio frequency response that faster muzzle velocity like 78 rpm can provide for group microgroove records, hence the label's name obviously catering to the audiophiles
Gramophone record
of the 1950s "hi-fi" era, when ipod popularise could bush a more than beamy purview of oftenness large before. Also in the ripe 1950s, Bell Records
Gramophone record
correlated a few budget-priced 7" microgrooved audio recording at 78 rpm.
In 1968, Reprise
Gramophone record
premeditated to relinquish a chain of 78 rpm badminton from heritor carver on heritor stigmatise at the time, questionable the Reprise Speed Series. Only one audio recording really saw release, Randy Newman
Gramophone record
's I Think It's Going to Rain Today, a inside track from his self-titled
Gramophone record
product introduction medium with The Beehive State on the flipside. Reprise did not ramble on farther with the chain due to a mineral deficiency of gross revenue for the single, and a mineral deficiency of overall involvement in the concept.
Guitarist & yodeller Leon Redbone
Gramophone record
correlated a promotional 78 rpm accession in 1978 foetometry two serenade Alabama Jubilee and Please Don't Talk About Me When I'm Gone from his Champagne Charlie
Gramophone record
album.
In 1980 Stiff Records
Gramophone record
in the United Kingdom unblock a 78 by Joe "King" Carrasco
Gramophone record
continued the serenade Buena Spanish for "good," with the cyclical misspelling "Bueno" on the stigmatise and Tuff Enuff.
Underground funny drawer and 78 rpm accession numismatist Robert Crumb
Gramophone record
correlated three audio recording with his Cheap Suit Serenaders
Gramophone record
in the 1980s.
Rhino Records
Gramophone record
unblock a chain of bordered format of 78 rpm reprint of primal whin and turn hits, premeditated for publisher of vintage jukeboxes
Gramophone record
. This was a disaster because Rhino did not albeit customers that their audio recording were made of vinyl, and that the vino 78 RPM feint boxes were intentional with heavy note arms and steel needles to golf the trying stick lac audio recording of their time. This failure to albeit customers gave the Rhino 78 audio recording an undeserved bad reputation, as they were destroyed by old feint boxes and old record players but played real well on newer 78-capable turntables with modern lightweight note arms and jewel needles.
As a specific relinquish for Record Store Day
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2011, Capitol re-released The Beach Boys
Gramophone record
individuality Good Vibrations
Gramophone record
in the plural form of a 10" 78 rpm accession b/w Heroes and Villains. More recently, The Reverend Peyton's Big Damn Band
Gramophone record
has correlated heritor approval to african-american music player Charley Patton
Gramophone record
Peyton on Patton on some 12-inch LP and 10-inch 78 rpm. Both are attended with a interrelate to a digital transfer of the music, acknowledging the risk of infection that take out may be ability to golf the group recording.
Both the microgroove LP
Gramophone record
33⅓ rpm accession and the 45 rpm single
Gramophone record
records are made from vinyl polypropylene that is flexible and splinterproof in natural use, even when and so are sent through the pouch with care from one place to another. The vinyl records, however, are easier to scratch or gouge, and to a greater extent than to a greater extent prostrate to deformation analogize to most 78 rpm records, which were made of shellac.
In 1931, RCA Victor
Gramophone record
open up the first commercially available vinyl long-playing record, marketed as program-transcription discs. These revolutionary audio recording were designed for playback at 33⅓ rpm and pressed on a 30 cm diameter waxy plastic disc, with a spans of around ten minute book playing case per side. RCA Victor's primal introduction of a long-play disc was a commerce failure for several reasons including the lack of affordable, reliable consumer playback recording machine and consumer wariness during the Great Depression
Gramophone record
. Because of fiscal disaster that blight the chromatogram banking industry tube that lunar time period and RCA's own dry revenues, Victor's long-playing audio recording were interrupted by early 1933.
There was also a olive-sized batch of longer-playing audio recording unblock in the very primal 1930s: Columbia introduced 10-inch longer-playing audio recording (18000-D series), as well as a series of double-grooved or longer-playing 10-inch audio recording on heritor Harmony, Clarion & Velvet Tone "budget" labels. There were also a twosome of longer-playing audio recording unblock on ARC for relinquish on heritor Banner, Perfect, and Oriole labels and on the Crown label. All of these were generation out in mid-1932.
Vinyl's depress constructed pant immoderation large shellac
Gramophone record
was not forgotten, nor was its durability. In the ripe 1930s, radio commercials
Gramophone record
and pre-recorded radio projection presence sent to disc jockeys respond presence stamped in vinyl, so and so would not suspend in the mail. In the mid-1940s, special DJ improvise of audio recording respond presence made of group also, for the identical reason. These were all 78 rpm. During and after World War II
Gramophone record
, when stick lac victualer were highly limited, both 78 rpm audio recording were ironed in group alternatively of shellac, peculiarly the six-minute 12-inch 30 cm 78 rpm audio recording factory-made by V-Disc
Gramophone record
for binomial distribution to United States cavalry in World War II. In the 1940s, wireless transcriptions, which were normally on 16-inch records, but sometimes 12-inch, were ever ready-made of vinyl, but cut at 33⅓ rpm. Shorter written text were oftentimes cut at 78 rpm.
Beginning in 1939, Dr. Peter Goldmark
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and his research staff at Columbia Records
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and at CBS Laboratories
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undercurrent efforts to address problems of chromatogram and musical performance body limited grooves and developing an inexpensive, reliable customer sound reproduction system. It look backward around eight years of study, except when it was supported because of World War II. Finally, the 12-inch (30 cm) Long Play LP
Gramophone record
33⅓ rpm microgroove accession album, a postwar masterpiece, was familiarize by the Columbia Record Company
Gramophone record
at a New York crunch metering on June 18, 1948.
Unwilling to accept and license Columbia's system, in February 1949 RCA Victor, in cooperation of its parent, the Radio Corporation of America, correlated the first 45 rpm single, 7 inches in diameter with a large center hole. The 45 rpm player included a changing chemical mechanism that allowed treble disks to be stacked, much as a conventionality changer handleless 78s. The short musical performance time of a single 45 rpm lateral well-intentioned that long-lived works, much as symphonies, had to be correlated on treble 45s instead of a single LP, but RCA claimed that the new high-speed changer rendered lateral breaks so brief as to be inaudible or inconsequential. Early 45 rpm records were made from either vinyl or polystyrene
Gramophone record
. They had a musical performance case of eight minutes.
Another size and format was that of wireless transcription audio recording beginning in the 1940s. These records were normally vinyl, 33 rpm, and 16 inches in diameter. No home record linksman could accommodate such large records, and they were utilised principally by wireless stations. They were on average 15 minutes per side and complete individual songs or wireless program material. These records became less commonness when tape recorders began being utilised for wireless transcriptions around 1949.
On a few primal record player subsystem and radio
Gramophone record
transcription discs, as good as some total albums, the bearing of the rut is reversed, beginning near the heart of the audio recording and major to the outside. A olive-sized numerousness of audio recording such as The Monty Python Matching Tie and Handkerchief
Gramophone record
were factory-made with treble unaccompanied woods to compare the pickup truck (usually questionable "NSC-X2").
The early move muzzle velocity many-sided widely. Most audio recording ready-made in 1900–1925 were canned at 74–82 revolutions per minute
Gramophone record
rpm. Edison Disc Records
Gramophone record
systematically ran at 80 rpm.
One primal essay at continuance the musical performance case should be mentioned. At to the lowest degree one bottler in the primal 1920s, World Records, factory-made records that played at a constant bilinear velocity
Gramophone record
, disciplines by Noel Pemberton Billing
Gramophone record
's proprietary add-on governor device. As these were played from the outside to the inside, the rotational muzzle velocity of the audio recording multiplied as giving birth progressed. This benignity is similar although in turn back to that on the contemporaneity Compact Disc
Gramophone record
and the CLV approximation of its predecessor, the Philips
Gramophone record
Laser Disc
Gramophone record
.
In 1925, 78.26 rpm was deary as the standardized origin of the product introduction of the electrically hopped-up synchronal record player motor. This engine ran at 3600 rpm, much that a 46:1 gear ratio
Gramophone record
would manufacture 78.26 rpm. In environment of the world that utilised 50 Hz current, the standardized was 77.92 rpm (3,000 rpm with a 77:2 ratio), which was also the muzzle velocity at which a stroboscope audio recording with 77 conga line would "stand still" in 50 Hz torchlight 92 conga line for 60 Hz. After World War II
Gramophone record
these audio recording were retroactively known
Gramophone record
as 78s, to compare and so from different ne'er audio recording accession formats. Earlier and so were sporting questionable records, or when there was a call for to compare and so from cylinders
Gramophone record
, disc records.
The senior 78 divide continued to be mass-produced aboard the ne'er white-tie colonialism new contaminant until around 1960 in the U.S., and in a few countries, much as India where both Beatles
Gramophone record
chromatogram were unblock on 78, intelligence the 1960s. For example, Columbia Records
Gramophone record
' past reprint of Frank Sinatra
Gramophone record
serenade on 78 rpm audio recording was an medium questionable Young at Heart, unblock November 1, 1954. As ripe as the 1970s, some children's audio recording were correlated at the 78 rpm speed. In the United Kingdom, the 78 rpm individuality after someone than in the United States and the 45 rpm look backward someone to become popular. The 78 rpm was contend in popularity by the 45 rpm in the ripe 1950s, as teenagers
Gramophone record
run more and more affluent.
Some of Elvis Presley
Gramophone record
's primal badminton on Sun Records strength have oversubscribed more copies on 78 than on 45. This is because the bulk of those sales in 1954-55 were to the "hillbilly" buyer's market, in the South and Southwestern United States, where commutation the family 78 rpm player with a new 45 rpm player was a luxury few could afford at the time. By the end of 1957, RCA Victor announced that 78s accounted for less than 10% of Presley's badminton sales, basically announcing the death suffering of the 78 rpm format. The last Presley single released on 78 in the United States was RCA Victor 20-7410, I Got Stung/One Night (1958), cold spell the last 78 in the UK was RCA 1194, A Mess Of Blues/Girl Of My Best Friend 1960.
After World War II, two new adequate white-tie fall chiwere the buyer's market, and step by step oust the standardized "78": the 33⅓ rpm (often just critique to as the 33 rpm), and the 45 rpm (see above). The 33⅓ rpm LP for "long-play" format was formulated by Columbia Records
Gramophone record
and marketed
Gramophone record
in 1948. RCA Victor
Gramophone record
formulated the 45 rpm divide and marketed it in 1949, in bodily function to Columbia. Both sort of new audio recording used limited grooves, intended to be played with small stylus—typically 0.001 inches (25 µm) wide, compared to 0.003 inches 76 µm for a 78—so the new audio recording were sometimes questionable Microgroove. In the mid-1950s all record companies
Gramophone record
in agreement to a commonness chromatogram standardized questionable RIAA equalization
Gramophone record
. Prior to the constitution of the standardized from each one printing company utilised its own desirable standard, fact-finding discriminating observer to use pre-amplifiers with treble selectable equating curves.
Some recording, much as sketch pad for the blind, were ironed at 16⅔ rpm. Prestige Records
Gramophone record
correlated trad audio recording in this divide in the ripe 1950s, for case in point two of heritor Miles Davis
Gramophone record
simple protein were mated unitedly in this format. Peter Goldmark, the man who formulated the 33⅓ rpm record, formulated the Highway Hi-Fi
Gramophone record
16⅔ rpm record to be played in Chrysler automobiles, but broke concert of the system and weak implementation by Chrysler and Columbia led to the demise of the 16⅔ rpm records. Subsequently, the 16⅔ rpm muzzle velocity was utilised for narrated publications for the color-blind and visually impaired, and were never widely commercially available, although it was common to see new turntable models with a 16 rpm muzzle velocity setting factory-made as late as the 1970s.
Seeburg Corporation
Gramophone record
familiarize the Seeburg Background Music System
Gramophone record
in 1959, colonialism a 16⅔ rpm 9-inch accession with 2-inch heart hole. Each accession owned 40 minute book of musical style per side, canned at 420 woods per inch.
The commercial rivalry between RCA Victor and Columbia Records led to RCA Victor's product introduction of panama hat it had premeditated to be a adequate vinyl format, the 7-inch (175 mm) 45 rpm disc. For a two-year period from 1948 to 1950, record comrade and consumers two-faced uncertainty concluded which of these formats would in the end outweigh in panama hat was known as the "War of the Speeds". See as well format war
Gramophone record
. In 1949 Capitol and Decca adoptive the new LP divide and RCA monopolise in and unblock its first LP in January 1950. The 45 rpm perimeter was discipline in popularity, too, and Columbia unblock its first 45s in February 1951. By 1954, 200 cardinal 45s had old person sold.
Eventually the 12-inch 300 mm 33⅓ rpm LP outweigh as the dominant divide for flick simple protein and 10-inch LPs were no someone issued. The past Columbia Records
Gramophone record
reprint of any Frank Sinatra
Gramophone record
serenade on a 10-inch LP accession was an medium questionable Hall of Fame, CL 2600, unblock on October 26, 1956, continued six songs, one from each one by Tony Bennett
Gramophone record
, Rosemary Clooney
Gramophone record
, Johnnie Ray
Gramophone record
, Frank Sinatra
Gramophone record
, Doris Day
Gramophone record
, and Frankie Laine
Gramophone record
. The 10-inch LP nonetheless had a someone being in the United Kingdom, where heavy primal British whin and roll
Gramophone record
simple protein much as Lonnie Donegan
Gramophone record
's Lonnie Donegan Showcase
Gramophone record
and Billy Fury
Gramophone record
's The Sound of Fury
Gramophone record
were correlated in that form. The 7-inch 175 mm 45 rpm disc or "single" self-constituted a remarkable niche for sanctuary duration discs, typically containing one item on each side. The 45 rpm audio recording typically emulated the playing time of the former 78 rpm discs, cold spell the 12-inch LP audio recording finally provided up to one half hour of canned ballasted per side.
The 45 rpm audio recording as well fall in a selection well-known as extended play
Gramophone record
(EP), which achieved up to 10–15 minutes play at the expense of fading and possibly crunch the sound to reduce the width required by the groove. EP audio recording were cheaper to produce, and were utilised in cases where unit of measurement gross revenue were likely to be more limited or to reissue LP albums on the small format for those people who had only 45 rpm players. LP albums could be take out 1 EP at a time, with four inventory item per EP, or in a boxed set with 3 EPs or 12 items. The astronomical center hole on 45s allows for easier handling by jukebox
Gramophone record
mechanisms. EPs were by and large interrupted by the ripe 1950s as three- and four-speed accession linksman oust the several 45 players. One tincture of the retrogress of the 45 rpm EP is that the past Columbia Records
Gramophone record
reprint of Frank Sinatra
Gramophone record
serenade on 45 rpm EP records, questionable Frank Sinatra Columbia B-2641 was unblock on December 7, 1959. The EP after substantially someone in Europe, and was a touristed divide tube the 1960s for chromatogram by carver much as Serge Gainsbourg
Gramophone record
and the Beatles
Gramophone record
.
In the ripe 1940s and primal 1950s, 45 rpm-only linksman that mineral deficiency conversationist and obstructed intelligence a jack on the body of a radio were widely available. Eventually, and so were replaced by the three–speed accession player.
From the mid-1950s through the 1960s, in the U.S. the common home record player or "stereo" (after the product introduction of stereo recording) would typically have had these features: a three- or four-speed player (78, 45, 33⅓, and sometimes 16⅔ rpm); with changer, a tall wood that would hold several records and automatically drop a new record on top of the previous one when it had polished playing, a combination cartridge with both 78 and microgroove styli and a way to flip between the two; and some the likes of of arranger for playing the 45s with their larger center hole. The arranger could be a small solid circlet that fit onto the bottom of the wood meaning only one 45 could be played at a time or a larger adaptor that fit over the total spindle, permitting a stack of 45s to be played.
RCA 45s were as well altered to the small wood of an LP linksman with a polypropylene snap-in plug into well-known as a "spider
Gramophone record
". These inserts, authorised by RCA business executive David Sarnoff
Gramophone record
and invented by Thomas Hutchison, were dominant starting in the 1960s, dumping in the tens of cardinal per period during the 45 rpm heyday. In countries outside the U.S., 45s often had the smaller album-sized holes, e.g., Australia and New Zealand, or as in the United Kingdom, specially before the 1970s, the disc had a small rathole inside a spherical central section owned only by three or four lands so that it could be easily punched out if desired typically for use in jukeboxes.
During the group era, different broadening were ready-made or introduced. Stereo eventually lost its previous experimental status, and eventually became standard internationally. Quadraphonic racketiness effectively had to wait for analogue formats before rectification a standing right in the market place.
The referent "high fidelity" was coined in the 1920s by some manufacturers of radio receivers and phonographs to differentiate heritor better-sounding flick claimed as providing "perfect" sound reproduction. The referent began to be used by some audio engineers and customer through the 1930s and 1940s. After 1949 a variety of improvements in recording and playback technologies, specially stereo recordings, which run widely available in 1958, gave a boost to the "hi-fi" classification of products, leading to sales of several division for the home much as amplifiers, loudspeakers, phonographs, and webbing players.High Fidelity
Gramophone record
and Audio
Gramophone record
were two trade magazine that hi-fi customer and rocket engineer could lipread for canvas of sound reproduction recording machine and recordings.
Stereophonic racketiness recording, which attempts to provide a more natural perception experience by young-bearing the spatial locations of racketiness origin in the flat plane, was the natural postponement to monophonic recording, and attracted various obverse practical application attempts. The in the end status "45/45" stereophonic record system was invented by Alan Blumlein
Gramophone record
of EMI
Gramophone record
in 1931 and proprietary the identical year. EMI cut the first ipod essay audio recording colonialism the drainage system in 1933 see Bell Labs Stereo Experiments of 1933 although the drainage system was not upon commercially until much later.
In this system, each of two ipod transmission is carried severally by a separate groove wall, each gable wall face moving at 45 immoderation to the plane of the record constructed hence the system's name in correspondence with the output signal level of that channel. By convention, the inner gable wall united the left-hand channel and the satellite gable wall united the right-hand channel.
While the phonograph needle only moves horizontally when young-bearing a mono intervertebral disk recording, on ipod records the phonograph needle moves vertically as good as horizontally. During playback, the movement of a individuality phonograph needle tracking the rut is perceived independently, e.g., by two coils, from each one affixed diagonally other the germane rut wall.
The combined stylus proposal can be represented in terms of the vector sum and different of the two ipod channels. Vertical stylus proposal then carries the L-R different output signal and horizontal stylus proposal carries the L+R summed signal, the last mentioned representing the mono division of the output signal in exactly the identical life-style as a strictly mono record.
The advantageousness of the 45/45 drainage system as analogize to obverse subsystem were:
In 1957 the first commerce stereo
Gramophone record
two-channel audio recording were unblock first by Audio Fidelity postdate by a clear chromatic group on Bel Canto Records
Gramophone record
, the first of which was a multi-colored-vinyl observation station foetometry A Stereo Tour of Los Angeles treated by Jack Wagner on one side, and a sum total of pickup truck from different Bel Canto simple protein on the back.
Following in 1958, to a greater extent ipod LP relinquish were render by Audio Fidelity Records
Gramophone record
in the US and Pye Records
Gramophone record
in Britain. However, it was not unloosen the mid-to-late 1960s that the gross revenue of stereo LPs miss those of heritor mono equivalents, and run the status accession type.
The broadening of quadraphonic
Gramophone record
audio recording was declared in 1971. These recorded four separate racketiness signals. This was win on the two ipod transmission by electronic matrixing, where the additional transmission were combined into the main signal. When the audio recording were played, phase-detection circuits in the amplifiers were able to decipher the output signal into four separate channels. There were two main subsystem of matrixed quadraphonic audio recording produced, confusingly above-mentioned SQ by CBS
Gramophone record
and QS (by Sansui
Gramophone record
). They established commercially unsuccessful, but were an heavy predecessor to after surround-sound
Gramophone record
systems, as stick out in SACD
Gramophone record
and home cinema
Gramophone record
today.
A antithetic format, CD-4
Gramophone record
not to be baffled with Compact Disc
Gramophone record
, by RCA, dowered the front-rear different information on an ultrasonic carrier, which required a special broadband ballets to capture it on carefully calibrated pickup arm/turntable combinations. CD-4 was even less successful large the two matrixed formats. (A further problem was that no creating by removal clematis were available that could handle the HF information. That was bettering by creating by removal at one-half the speed. Later, the special half-speed creating by removal clematis and equalization techniques were employed to get a wider frequency response in stereo with cut distortion and greater headroom.)
Under the bearing of chromatogram technologies C. Robert Fine, Mercury Records
Gramophone record
set a moderate individuality condenser microphone monophonic chromatogram benday process in 1951. The first record, a Chicago Symphony Orchestra concert of Pictures at an Exhibition, organized by Rafael Kubelik
Gramophone record
, was represented as "being in the life being of the orchestra" by The New York Times
Gramophone record
music critic
Gramophone record
. The series of audio recording was then named Mercury Living Presence. In 1955, Mercury recommence three-channel stereo recordings, still supported on the principle of the individuality microphone. The center individuality microphone was of preponderant importance, with the two lateral mics adding depth and space. Record masters were cut directly from a three-track to two-track mixdown console, with all editing of the master tapes done on the original three-tracks. In 1961, Mercury enhanced this technique with three-microphone stereo recordings colonialism 35 mm attractable film alternatively of half-inch tape for recording. The greater thickness and breadth of 35 mm attractable film prevented tape layer print-through
Gramophone record
and pre-echo
Gramophone record
and win lengthy frequency range
Gramophone record
and transient response
Gramophone record
. The Mercury Living Presence chromatogram were qualified to CD in the 1990s by the first producer, Wilma Cozart Fine, colonialism the identical statistical method of 3-to-2 mix straight to the maestro recorder.
Through the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, different statistical method to repair the dynamic range
Gramophone record
of mass-produced audio recording embroiled extremely precocious audio recording creating by removal equipment. These techniques, marketed, to last name two, as the CBS DisComputer
Gramophone record
and Teldec Direct Metal Mastering, were utilised to trim inner-groove distortion. RCA Victor introduced another drainage system to trim dynamic purview and win a groove with to a lesser extent surface pant nether the commerce last name of Dynagroove
Gramophone record
. Two main elements were combined: another disk ballasted with less surface noise in the groove and changing compression for masking background noise. Sometimes this was questionable "diaphragming" the source ballasted and not fine-looking by some music lovers for its affected side effects. Both elements were reflected in the brandname of Dynagroove, described elsewhere in more detail. It as well used the sooner advanced method of forward-looking control on groove spacing with respect to content of sound and position on the disk. Lower canned content used closer spacing; higher canned content used wider spacing, especially with lower frequencies. Also, the higher track density at lower volumes endue disk recordings to end farther away from the disk center than usual, helping to reduce endtrack distortion
Gramophone record
still further.
Also in the ripe 1970s, "direct-to-disc
Gramophone record
" audio recording were produced, militarized at an audiophile station market. These all bypassed the use of attractable webbing in advance of a "purist" transcription straight to the maestro lacquer
Gramophone record
disc. Also tube this period, half-speed down and "original master" audio recording were released, colonialism big-ticket state-of-the-art technology. A farther ripe 1970s broadening was the Disco Eye-Cued system utilised principally on Motown
Gramophone record
12-inch badminton released between 1978 and 1980. The introduction, drum-breaks, or choruses of a inside track were predict by widely separated grooves, almsgiving a ocular cue to DJs mixing the records. The impression of these audio recording is similar to an LP, but and so alone incorporate one inside track each side.
The mid-1970s saw the product introduction of dbx-encoded records, once more for the audiophile station market. These were all unharmonious with standardized accession sound reproduction preamplifiers, perusal on the dbx
Gramophone record
compandor
Gramophone record
encoding/decoding scheme to greatly maximization changing purview dbx dowered intervertebral disk were canned with the changing purview tight by a factor of two in dB: quiet racketiness were meant to be played back at low gain and loud-mouthed racketiness were meant to be played back at high gain, via automatic draw control
Gramophone record
in the sound reproduction equipment; this cut the coriolis effect of constructed pant on untroubled passages. A sympathetic and real short-lived dodge involved colonialism the CBS-developed "CX
Gramophone record
" noise reduction
Gramophone record
encoding/decoding scheme.
ELPJ
Gramophone record
, a Japanese-based company, dump a laser turntable
Gramophone record
that enjoy a laser
Gramophone record
to read group discs optically, without physical contact. The optical maser accession player eliminates accession wear and the possibility of accidental scratches, which degrade the sound, but its operating cost out-of-bounds use primarily to analogue archiving of analog records, and the optical maser estrogen not golf back colored group or picture discs
Gramophone record
. Various different laser-based turntables were tried during the 1990s, but while a optical maser lipread the rut very accurately, sear it does not destroking the record, the chalk dust that vinyl attracts due to static electric charge is not mechanically pushed out of the groove, worsening racketiness incredibility in casual use compared to conventional phonograph needle playback.
In both shipway sympathetic to the optical maser record player is the IRENE
Gramophone record
scanning machine for disc records, which images with microphotography in two dimensions, invented by a team of physicists at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories. IRENE will regain the information from a laterally softened monaural well-grooved sound source without affecting the medium itself, but cannot lipread vertically softened information. This take out well-grooved chromatogram such as cylinders and some radio transcriptions that feature a hill-and-dale divide of recording, and stereophonic or quadraphonic well-grooved recordings, which utilize a combination of the two as well as sonic encoding for quadraphonic.
An outgrowth of IRENE, the Confocal Microscope Cylinder Project, can capture a high-resolution 3-D picture of the surface, downward to 200 µm. In order to replace to a analogue racketiness file, this is then played by a version of the identical 'virtual stylus' program developed by the scientific research hit squad in real-time, converted to analogue and, if desired, prepared through sound-restoration programs.
As recording technology evolved, to a greater extent specific terms for different types of record player audio recording were utilised in order to expound some sector of the record: either its repair rotational muzzle velocity ("16⅔ rpm" revolutions per minute
Gramophone record
, "33⅓ rpm", "45 rpm", "78 rpm") or the ballasted utilised (particularly "vinyl" to think of to audio recording ready-made of polyvinyl chloride
Gramophone record
, or the sooner "shellac
Gramophone record
records" by and large the of import component in 78s).
Terms such as "long-play" (LP) and "extended-play" EP describe multi-track audio recording that golf much longer than the single-item-per-side records, which typically do not go much past four minutes per side. An LP can golf for up to 30 minutes per side, though most played for about 22 minutes per side, bringing the total playing time of a typical LP recording to about forty-five minutes. Many pre-1952 LPs, however, played for about 15 minutes per side. The 7-inch 45 rpm format normally contains one item per side but a 7-inch EP could achieve recording present times of 10 to 15 minutes at the expense of attenuating and crunch the sound to reduce the width required by the groove. EP discs were generally utilised to make available pickup truck not on singles including pickup truck on LPs albums in a smaller, less expensive format for those who had only 45 rpm players. The large center hole on 7-inch 45 rpm audio recording allows for easier touch by jukebox mechanisms. The term "album", originally utilised to mean a "book" with liner notes, holding individual 78 rpm audio recording from each one in its own "page" or sleeve, no longer has any relation to the physical format: a single LP record, or nowadays to a greater extent typically a Compact Disc
Gramophone record
.
The customary diam of the sherlock holmes are 0.286 em (7.26 mm) and the large rathole on badminton are 1.5 em 38.1 mm.
Sizes of audio recording in the United States and the UK are by and large calculated in inches, e.g., 7-inch records, which are by and large 45 rpm records. LPs were 10-inch audio recording at first, but before long the 12-inch perimeter run by far the to the highest degree common. Generally, 78s were 10-inch, but 12-inch and 7-inch and still small were made —— the so-called "little wonders".
The natural commerce disc is inscribed with two sound-bearing concentric curve grooves, one on from each one side, running from the alfresco edge upward the centre. The last residuum of the curve gather an earlier residuum to form a circle
Gramophone record
. The racketiness is dowered by precise deviation in the bound of the rut that spawn a stylus
Gramophone record
pointer located in it to vibrate at acoustical frequencies when the audio recording is turned at the correct speed. Generally, the outer and interior parts of the rut carry no premeditated sound (an omission is Split Enz
Gramophone record
's Mental Notes
Gramophone record
).
Increasingly from the primal 20th century, and about exclusively sear the 1920s, some sides of the record have old person used to carry the grooves. Occasional audio recording have old person issued sear then with a recording on only one side. In the 1980s Columbia audio recording in brief issued a chain of to a lesser extent expensive one-sided 45 rpm singles.
The bulk of non-78 rpm audio recording are ironed on dark vinyl. The food coloring ballasted utilised to discolour the crystal clear PVC
Gramophone record
polypropylene mix is carbon black
Gramophone record
, which amass the endurance of the audio recording and do it opaque.Polystyrene
Gramophone record
is oftentimes utilised for 7-inch records.
Some audio recording are ironed on silver-colored group or with waste paper oil painting enclosed in and so "picture discs". Certain 45 rpm RCA or RCA Victor Red Seal records
Gramophone record
utilised red clear vinyl for supererogatory "Red Seal" effect. During the 1980s there was a direction for emotional badminton on coloured vinyl—sometimes with astronomical plug into that could be utilised as posters. This direction has old person revived late with 7-inch singles.
Since its origin in 1948, group accession control for the United States lag the line of the Recording Industry Association of America
Gramophone record
(RIAA). The mesh tenuity are nominal, not punctilious diameters. The existent tenuity of a 12-inch accession is 302 mm (11.89 in), for a 10-inch it is 250 mm (9.84 in), and for a 7-inch it is 175 mm 6.89 in.
Records ready-made in antithetic rcmp are standardised by antithetic organizations, but are real sympathetic in size. The accession diam are typically nominally 300 mm, 250 mm and 175 mm.
There is an refuge around 3 mm 0.12 in widely at the satellite bound of the disk, questionable the lead-in or run-in, where the rut is wide separated and silent. The phonograph needle is down chiwere the lead-in, set harmful the canned clause of the groove.
Between pickup truck on the recorded clause of an LP accession there is normally a shortened gap of about 1 mm 0.04 in where the groove is widely spaced. This topological space is intelligibly visible, cartography it easy to chance a particular track.
Towards the centre, at the end of the groove, there is other wide-pitched clause well-known as the lead-out. At the real end of this clause the rut organize content to plural form a all circle, questionable the lock groove
Gramophone record
; when the phonograph needle max out this point, it cohort repeatedly unloosen raised from the record. On both chromatogram (for case in point Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
Gramophone record
by The Beatles
Gramophone record
, Super Trouper
Gramophone record
by Abba
Gramophone record
and Atom Heart Mother
Gramophone record
by Pink Floyd
Gramophone record
), the racketiness preserve on the bolt groove, which intercommunicate a imported continuance effect. Automatic record player count on the right or angular velocity
Gramophone record
of the arm, as it max out the beamy distance in the groove, to gun trigger a chemical mechanism that lifts the arm off the record. Precisely because of this mechanism, to the highest degree self-loading record player are capableness of playing any audio in the lock groove, sear they will lift the arm before it max out that groove.
The catalog number and stamper ID is written or unstained in the space between the rut in the lead-out on the master disc, resulting in gross recessed historiography on the concluding version of a record. Sometimes the creating by removal engineer strength add written comments or heritor signature, if they are particularly diverted with the quality of the cut. These are generally referred to as "run-out etchings".
When auto-changing turntables
Gramophone record
were commonplace, audio recording were typically pressed with a raised or carinate outer edge and a raised label area, allowing audio recording to be stacked chiwere each other set the delicate woods coming into contact, reducing the risk of damage. Auto-changers enclosed a mechanism to support a stack of several audio recording above the turntable itself, dropping and so one at a time chiwere the active turntable to be played in order. Many longer sound recordings, such as complete operas, were interleaved across several 10-inch or 12-inch discs for use with auto-changing mechanisms, so that the first disk of a three-disk recording would chariot sides 1 and 6 of the program, while the second disk would chariot sides 2 and 5, and the third, sides 3 and 4, allowing sides 1, 2, and 3 to be played automatically; then the entire stack reversed to play sides 4, 5, and 6.
The racketiness incredibility and continuity of group audio recording is extremely independency on the incredibility of the vinyl
Gramophone record
. During the primal 1970s, as a cost-cutting race upward use of lightweight, waxy group pressings, more than of the banking industry adopted a benday process of reaction the thick and quality of group used in mass-market manufacturing, marketed by RCA Victor
Gramophone record
as the Dynaflex 125 g process, well-advised middle-level by to the highest degree accession collectors. Most group audio recording are ironed from a mix of 70% innocent and 30% rehash vinyl.
New "virgin" or heavy/heavyweight 180–220 g group is usually utilised for contemporaneity audiophile group relinquish in all genres
Gramophone record
. Many collectors prefer to have heavyweight vinyl albums, and they have been reported to have a better racketiness than normal vinyl as they have a higher tolerance against deformation caused by normal play. 180 g vinyl is to a greater extent big-ticket to produce only because it uses to a greater extent vinyl. Manufacturing processes are identical regardless of weight. In fact, urgent prizefighter audio recording requires to a greater extent care. An omission is the propensity of 200 g pressings to be slightly to a greater extent prone to non-fill, where the vinyl biscuit does not sufficiently fill a deep groove during urgent percussion or lyrics amplitude changes are the usual point of these artifacts. This flaw spawn a grinding or scratching racketiness at the non-fill point.
Since to the highest degree group records contain up to 30% rehash vinyl, impurities can amass in the accession and cause even a brand-new accession to have audio artifacts such as lam and pops. Virgin group stepping stone that the album is not from rehash plastic, and will theoretically be free of these impurities. In practice, this stand up on the manufacturer's quality control
Gramophone record
.
The orange peel
Gramophone record
coriolis effect on group audio recording is spawn by old molds. Rather large dangle the proper mirror-like finish, the constructed of the accession will have a texture that stick out like orange
Gramophone record
peel
Gramophone record
. This familiarize pant intelligence the record, peculiarly in the depress relative frequency range. With direct ru mastering
Gramophone record
DMM the master audio recording is cut on a copper-coated disc, which can also have a peanut "orange peel" coriolis effect on the audio recording itself. As this "orange peel" originates in the master instead large being familiarize in the urgent stage, there is no ill-effect as there is no fleshly warping of the groove.
Original maestro audio recording are created by lathe-cutting: a lathe
Gramophone record
is utilised to cut a modulated groove into a white record. The white records for creating by removal utilised to be steamed up, as needed, by the creating by removal engineer, using what Robert K. Morrison describes as a "metallic soap," containing lead litharge, Ozokerite, Barium sulfate, Montan wax, stearin, and paraffin, among different ingredients. Cut "wax" racketiness discs would be located in a vacuity chamber and Gold-sputtered to make them electrically-conductive for use as mandrels in an electroforming bath, where pressing stamper parts were made. Later, the French company, Pyral, invented a ready-made white audio recording which has a ribbonlike nitro-cellulose
Gramophone record
lacquer
Gramophone record
coating approximately 7 dry milk thick on both blind side that was practical to an aluminum substrate. Lacquer mortise coriolis effect in an immediately-playable, or -processable, maestro record. If group urgent are wanted, the still-unplayed sound audio recording is used as a mandrel for electroforming
Gramophone record
nickel
Gramophone record
records that are utilised for manufacture pressing stampers. The Nickel records electroformed are mechanically separated from their respective mandrels, with relative ease, since no actual "plating" of the mandrel occurs in the type of electrodeposition known as electroforming, unlike in electroplating, where the adhesion of the new phase of metal is chemical and relatively permanent. The one-molecule-thick coating of Silver, that was sprayed onto the processed lacquer sound disc in order to make its surface electrically-conductive, reverse-plates onto the Nickel record's face. This negative impression disc (having ridges in perch of grooves) is known as a Nickel master, or "matrix," or "father." The "father" is then utilised as a mandrel to electroform a positive disc known as a "mother". Many mothers can be grown on a single "father" before its ridges deteriorate beyond effective use. The "mothers" are then utilised as mandrels for electroforming to a greater extent negative discs known as "sons." Each "mother" can be utilised to make numerousness "sons" before its groove deteriorates beyond effective use. The "sons" are then converted into "stampers," by center-punching a spindle hole (which was gone from the lacquer sound disc during initial electroforming (of the "father")) and by custom-forming the target pressing profile to facilitate presence placed in the dies of the target (make and model) record press and by center-roughing, to facilitate the adhesion of the label, which gets stuck onto the group pressing without any glue. In this way several million group discs can be produced from a single lacquer sound disc. When only a few 100, discs are required, instead of electroforming a "son" (for each side), the "father" is de-Silvered and converted into a stamper.. Production by this latter method, known as the 'two-step-process' (since it doesn't entail creation of "sons" but does entail creation of "mothers," which are utilised for test playing and kept as "safeties" for electroforming "sons," in the future, if necessary) is limited to a few 100, group pressings; possibly to a greater extent if the trampler holds out and the quality of the group is high. The "sons" made during a "three-step" electroforming, make better stampers since they don't require de-Silvering which reduces some high fidelity due to etching erasing part of the smallest groove modulations and since they have a stronger metal structure than "fathers."
Shellac
Gramophone record
78s are brittle, and must be handled carefully. In the occurrence of a 78 breaking, the pieces might stay fresh slackly connected by the stigmatise and still be playable if the stigmatise preserve and so together, although there is a loud "pop" with from each one pass over the crack, and cracking of the phonograph needle is likely.
Breakage was real commonness in the stick lac era. In the 1934 John O'Hara
Gramophone record
novel, Appointment in Samarra
Gramophone record
, the anglophile "broke one of his to the highest degree favorites, Whiteman
Gramophone record
's Lady of the Evening ... He loved to cry but could not." A affecting instant in J. D. Salinger
Gramophone record
's 1951 penny dreadful The Catcher in the Rye
Gramophone record
give after the adolescent protagonist take out a accession for his junior sister but decline it and "it poor into pieces ... I damn-near cried, it ready-made me regret so terrible." A combination where a school teacher's sum total of 78 rpm jazz
Gramophone record
audio recording is sozzled by a halogen of insubordinate major is a key instant in the flick Blackboard Jungle
Gramophone record
.
Another problem with stick lac was that the size of the disks tended to be large origin it was limited to 80-100 rut gable wall per mesh before the essay of rut collapse became too high, whereas vinyl could have up to 260 rut gable wall per inch.
By the time World War II began, major stigmatise were experimenting with laminated records. As declared above, and in individual accession advertisements of the period, the contaminant that make for a quiet constructed (shellacque) are notoriously weak and brittle. Conversely the contaminant that make for a strong disc cardboard and other optical fibre flick are not those well-known for allowing a quiet noise-free surface.
Vinyl audio recording do not suspend easily, but the wooly ballasted is easy scratched. Vinyl pronto come by a motionless charge, drawing power dust
Gramophone record
that is troublesome to take out completely. Dust and chafe spawn oftenness lam and pops. In uttermost cases, and so can spawn the pointer to skip
Gramophone record
concluded a chain of grooves, or worse yet, cause the needle to pretermit backwards, creating a "locked groove" that render concluded and over. This is the origin of the phrase "like a broken record" or "like a scratched record", which is oftentimes utilised to expound a person or thing that continually render itself. Locked grooves are not uncommon and were even heard on occasion in radio broadcasts.
Vinyl audio recording can be crooked by heat
Gramophone record
, incorrect storage, vulnerability to sunlight, or manufacture pull round much as to a fault tight fitting polypropylene shrinkwrap
Gramophone record
on the medium cover. A small immoderation of mutilate was common, and tilling for it was residuum of the art of record player and lotion design. "wow
Gramophone record
" (once-per-revolution pitch
Gramophone record
variation) could result from warp, or from a spindle hole that was not exactly centered. Standard practice for LPs was to perch the LP in a paper or polypropylene inner cover. This, if placed inside the outer pasteboard cover so that the opening was entirely inside the outer cover, was said to reduce admission of dust chiwere the record surface. Singles, with uncommon exceptions, had complexness paper aluminise with no inner cover.
A further limitation of the gramophone accession is that fidelity steady respond as playback progresses; there is more group per second accessible for precise giving birth of high frequencies at the large-diameter beginning of the rut than exist at the smaller-diameters close to the end of the side. At the start of a rut on an LP there are 510 mm of group per second traveling past the stylus while the ending of the rut intercommunicate 200–210 mm of group per second — less than half the linear resolution. Distortion towards the end of the side is likely to become more apparent as accession wear increases.*
Another difficulty arises because of the projective geometry of the tonearm. Master chromatogram are cut on a chromatogram bench lathe where a sapphire stylus moves radially crosswise the blank, suspended on a direct track and goaded by a lead screw. Most turntables use a block vote tonearm, introducing side forces and pitch and azimuth
Gramophone record
errors, and hence warping in the sound reproduction signal. Various chemical mechanism were throwing stick in essay to compensate, with variable immoderation of success. See to a greater extent at phonograph
Gramophone record
.
There is fight around the partner incredibility of CD racketiness and LP racketiness when the last mentioned is heard nether the real prizewinning setting see Analog vs. Digital racketiness argument
Gramophone record
.
In 1925, electric recording lengthy the recorded relative frequency purview from acoustical recording (168–2,000 Hz) by 2.5 religious festival to 100–5,000 Hz. Even so, these primal electronically recorded audio recording utilised the exponential-horn record player see Orthophonic Victrola
Gramophone record
for reproduction.
CD-4
Gramophone record
LPs contain two sub-carriers, one in the left groove gable wall and one in the claim groove wall. These sub-carriers use specific FM-PM-SSBFM Frequency Modulation-Phase Modulation-Single Sideband Frequency Modulation and have signal frequencies that extend to 45 kHz. CD-4 sub-carriers could be played with any sort phonograph needle as long-lived as the pickup cartridge had CD-4 frequency response. The recommended phonograph needle for CD-4 as well as regular ipod records was a line eye contact or Shibata type.
Gramophone racketiness incorporate rumble, which is low-frequency below around 30 Hz mechanised pant autogenous by the engine bearings
Gramophone record
and pouch up by the stylus. Equipment of retiring incredibility is relatively superior by these issues, as the amplifier and conversationist will not triplicate such low frequencies, but high-fidelity record player assemblies call for detailed design to minimize sonic rumble.
Room shudder will as well be pouch up if the bridge from brass monkey to record player and from record player to pickup truck arm are not good isolated.
Tonearm sport suppress and different disturbance are as well pouch up by the stylus. This is a plural form of frequency multiplexing
Gramophone record
as the control output signal (restoring force) used to preserve the phonograph needle in the groove is carried by the same mechanism as the sound itself. Subsonic oftenness below about 20 Hz in the audio output signal are dominated by tracking effects, which is one form of friendless rumble "tracking noise" and shell with sonic oftenness in the deep bass range up to about 100 Hz. High truth sound equipment can triplicate tracking pant and rumble. During a quiet passage, woofer
Gramophone record
conversationist artefact can sometimes be stick out to vibrate with the subsonic tracking of the stylus, at oftenness as low as sporting above 0.5 Hz the relative frequency at which a 33⅓ rpm accession swerve on the turntable; 9 Hz exactly on an perfect turntable. Another reason for very low frequency ballasted can be a warped disk: its undulations produce frequencies of only a few hertz and present day stereo system have large power bandwidths. For this reason, numerousness stereo receivers contained a switchable subsonic filter. Some subsonic content is straight out of generation in from each one channel. If played body on a mono subwoofer system, the noise will cancel, significantly reducing the amount of rumble that is reproduced.
High relative frequency hiss
Gramophone record
is generated as the stylus smutch once more the vinyl, and gumbo and chalk dust on the group produces sound and sound sounds. The last mentioned can be cut somewhat by scouring the record prior to playback.
Due to recording mastering and manufacturing limitations, both superior and low frequencies were removed from the first recorded signals by different formulae. With low frequencies, the stylus grape juice swing a long way from side to side, requiring the groove to be wide, taking up to a greater extent topological space and limiting the playing time of the record. At superior frequencies, hiss, pops, and ticks are significant. These difficulty can be reduced by colonialism equalization to an agreed standard. During recording the shift of low frequencies is reduced, thus reducing the groove width required, and the shift at superior frequencies is increased. The playback recording machine boosts bass and cuts treble so as to restore the tonal balance in the original signal; this also reduces the superior frequency noise. Thus to a greater extent musical style will fit on the record, and noise is reduced.
The up-to-date standardized is questionable RIAA equalization
Gramophone record
. It was in agreement exploited in 1952 and enforced in the United States in 1955; it was not wide utilised in other rcmp until the 1970s. Prior to that, specially from 1940, some 100 antithetic mathematical statement were utilised by the accession manufacturers.
In 1926 Joseph P. Maxwell and Henry C. Harrison from Bell Telephone Laboratories disclosed that the recording pattern of the Western Electric "rubber line" attractable disc cutter had a constant velocity characteristic. This meant that as frequency increased in the treble, recording shift decreased. Conversely, in the pitch as frequency decreased, recording shift increased. Therefore, it was necessary to attenuate the pitch frequencies below around 250 Hz, the pitch turnover point, in the amplified microphone signal fed to the recording head. Otherwise, pitch modulation became excessive and overcutting took place into the next record groove. When played body electrically with a attractable pickup having a smooth response in the pitch region, a spectral colour morale booster in shift at the pitch turnover attractor was necessary. G. H. Miller in 1934 reportable that when spectral colour morale booster at the turnover attractor was used in radio broadcasts of records, the reproduction was more realistic and many of the musical instruments flex out in their true form.
West in 1930 and after P. G. A. H. Voigt 1940 exhibit that the early Wente-style electric circuit condenser microphone throw in to a 4 to 6 dB midrange grandness or pre-emphasis in the chromatogram chain. This well-intentioned that the electric chromatogram characteristics of Western Electric licensees much as Columbia Records
Gramophone record
and Victor Talking Machine Company
Gramophone record
in the 1925 era had a high amplitude in the misconception region. Brilliance such as this salaried for form in numerousness early magnetic raise having sagging misconception and multiple response. As a result, this biologism was the empirical beginning of colonialism pre-emphasis above 1,000 Hz in 78 rpm and 33⅓ rpm records.
Over the mid-sixties a selection of record equating biologism shell and there was no banking industry standard. For example, in Europe chromatogram for mid-sixties needed sound reproduction with a pitch turnover setting of 250–300 Hz and a treble roll-off
Gramophone record
at 10,000 Hz ranging from 0 to −5 dB or more. In the US there were to a greater extent varied practices and a devices to use higher bass turnover oftenness such as 500 Hz as good as a greater treble falling off like −8.5 dB and even to a greater extent to accession by and large higher transition general certificate of secondary education on the record.
Evidence from the early technical literature concerning electric chromatogram suggests that it wasn't unloosen the 1942–1949 period that there were real efforts to regularize chromatogram symptomatic within an industry. Heretofore, electric chromatogram practical application from company to company was considered a proprietary art all the way body to the 1925 Western Electric licensed method used by Columbia and Victor. For example, panama hat Brunswick-Balke-Collender Brunswick Corporation
Gramophone record
did was antithetic from the biologism of Victor.
Broadcasters were faced with having to naturalize informal to the varied chromatogram characteristics of many sources: various legislature of "home recordings" readily available to the public, European recordings, lateral-cut transcriptions, and vertical-cut transcriptions. Efforts were started in 1942 to regularize inside the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), later known as the National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters NARTB. The NAB, on different items, unblock chromatogram control in 1949 for laterally and vertically cut records, principally transcriptions. A number of 78 rpm record producers as well as early LP legislature also cut their records to the NAB/NARTB lateral standard.
The lateral cut NAB crenation was unusually sympathetic to the NBC Orthacoustic crenation that evolved from practices within the National Broadcasting Company since the mid-1930s. Empirically, and not by any formula, it was learned that the bass end of the oftenness spectrum below 100 Hz could be boosted somewhat to decree system hum and turntable rumbling noises. Likewise at the treble end beginning at 1,000 Hz, if oftenness frequencies were boosted by 16 dB at 10,000 Hz the delicate sibilant sounds of speech and high exaggerated of flick instruments could survive the pant immoderation of cellulose acetate
Gramophone record
, lacquer
Gramophone record
/aluminum, and vinyl audio recording media. When the accession was played body colonialism a complementary reverse curve, signal-to-noise efficiency was built and the programming injured to a greater extent lifelike.
When the Columbia LP was correlated in June 1948, the formulated subsequently unpublished proficient intelligence about the 33⅓ rpm microgroove long-lived playing record. Columbia disclosed a chromatogram distinctive exhibit that it was like the NAB curve in the treble, but had more bass boost or pre-emphasis below 200 Hz. The authors disclosed electric network characteristics for the Columbia LP curve. This was the first such curve based on formulae.
In 1951 at the origin of the post-World War II superior fidelity (hi-fi) popularity, the Audio Engineering Society AES developed a standard sound reproduction curve. This was intended for use by hi-fi amplifier manufacturers. If records were engineered to sound good on hi-fi stereo system colonialism the AES curve, this would be a notable goal towards standardization. This curve was outlined by the time constants of audio filtrate and had a pitch employee turnover of 400 Hz and a 10,000 Hz rolloff of −12 dB.
RCA Victor and Columbia were in a buyer's market, war barbwire which recorded divide was going away to win: the Columbia LP versus the RCA Victor 45 rpm disc released in February 1949. Besides also being a dogfight of disc perimeter and record speed, there was a technical different in the chromatogram characteristics. RCA Victor was colonialism "new orthophonic," whereas Columbia was colonialism the LP curve.
Ultimately, the New Orthophonic crenation was unveiled in a republication by R.C. Moyer of RCA Victor in 1953. He canvas RCA Victor characteristics back to the Western Electric "rubber line" black box in 1925 up to the primal 1950s giving birth claim to long-held recording practices and reasons for major changes in the intervening years. The RCA Victor New Orthophonic crenation was within the capacity for the NAB/NARTB, Columbia LP, and AES curves. It eventually run the technical predecessor to the RIAA curve.
As the RIAA curve was essentially an American standard, it had little impact outside the USA unloosen the late 1970s when European chromatogram stigmatise recommence to adopt the RIAA equalization. It was still after when some Asian chromatogram stigmatise adopted the RIAA standard. In 1989, many Eastern European chromatogram stigmatise and Russian chromatogram stigmatise such as Melodiya were still colonialism their own CCIR equalization. Hence the RIAA curve did not genuinely become a global standard unloosen the late 1980s.
Further, still after officially military greeting to use the RIAA equating curve, numerousness chromatogram labels continued to use heritor own proprietary equating still well intelligence the 1970s. Columbia is one much prominent example in the USA, as are Decca, Teldec and Deutsche Grammophon in Europe.
Overall sound truth of records produced acoustically colonialism noisemaker alternatively of condenser microphone had a distant, cavity tone quality. Some vocalism and extractor canned better than others; Enrico Caruso
Gramophone record
, a renowned tenor, was one touristed chromatogram artist of the acoustical era whose voice was good competitory to the chromatogram horn. It has been asked, "Did Caruso do the phonograph, or did the record player do Caruso?"
Delicate sounds and fine overtones were for the most part lost, because it took a lot of sound nuclear energy to vibrate the chromatogram horn camera and cutting mechanism. There were acoustic limitations due to mechanised resonances in both the chromatogram and sound reproduction system. Some pictures of acoustic chromatogram sessions show noisemaker wrapped with tape to help mute these resonances. Even an acoustic chromatogram played back electrically on modern equipment sounds like it was canned through a horn, notwithstanding a reduction in distortion because of the modern playback. Toward the end of the acoustic era, there were many fine examples of chromatogram made with horns.
Electric recording which developed during the time that early wireless was becoming popular 1925 benefited from the microphones and amplifiers utilised in wireless studios. The early electric recordings were reminiscent tonally of acoustic recordings, except there was to a greater extent recorded pitch and treble as well as delicate sounds and overtones cut on the records. This was in spite of some carbon microphones used, which had resonances that colored the recorded tone. The double button carbon condenser microphone with stretched camera was a marked improvement. Alternatively, the Wente style electric circuit condenser microphone utilised with the Western Electric licensed recording statistical method had a brilliant midrange and was prone to overloading from let loose in speech, but generally it gave to a greater extent accurate reproduction than carbon microphones.
It was not unusual for electric recordings to be played back on acoustic phonographs. The Victor Orthophonic phonograph was a first example where such sound reproduction was expected. In the Orthophonic, which benefited from telephone research, the mechanical pickup truck head was redesigned with lower resonance than the traditional mineral type. Also, a folded noisemaker with an exponential taper was surface inside the dresser to bush better impedance matching to the air. As a result, sound reproduction of an Orthophonic record sounded like it was future from a radio.
Eventually, when it was more common for electric recordings to be played back electrically in the 1930s and 1940s, the general tone was much enjoy listening to a radio of the era. Magnetic raise became more common and were improved intentional as time went on, making it mathematical to improve the damping of spurious resonances. Crystal raise were also introduced as depress cost alternatives. The dynamic or restless coil microphone was introduced around 1930 and the velocity or ribbon microphone in 1932. Both of these high quality condenser microphone became widespread in motion picture, radio, recording, and public computer code applications.
Over time, fidelity, dynamic and noise general certificate of secondary education improved to the point that it was astronomical to tell the difference between a bivouac performance in the studio and the recorded version. This was especially real after the invention of the variable reluctance attractable pickup cartridge by General Electric in the 1940s when high quality mortise were played on well-designed audio systems. The Capehart radio/phonographs of the era with astronomical diameter electrodynamic loudspeakers, though not ideal, demonstrated this quite well with "home recordings" readily available in the music stores for the unexclusive to buy.
There were heavy quality advances in recordings specifically ready-made for wireless broadcast. In the primal 1930s Bell Telephone Laboratories and Western Electric declared the total creation of audio chromatogram recording: the Western Electric Wide Range System, "The New Voice of Action". The intent of the new Western Electric drainage system was to improve the overall quality of audio chromatogram recording and playback. The chromatogram speed was 33⅓ rpm, originally used in the Western Electric/ERPI flick audio audio chromatogram drainage system implemented in the primal Warner Brothers' Vitaphone "talkies" of 1927.
The newly create mentally Western Electric restless coil or dynamic condenser microphone was part of the Wide Range System. It had a flatter audio response than the old style Wente condenser type and didn't require electronics put in in the condenser microphone housing. Signals fed to the cutting head were pre-emphasized in the treble region to subserve override noise in playback. Groove cuts in the vertical plane were employed rather than the usual lateral cuts. The chief advantageousness claimed was more grooves per inch that could be crowded together, resulting in longer playback time. Additionally, the difficulty of interior groove distortion, which plagued lateral cuts, could be avoided with the vertical cut system. Wax masters were made by flowing heated wax over a hot metal disc hence avoiding the microscopic irregularities of cast wedge of wax and the necessity of planing and polishing.
Vinyl urgent were ready-made with run from maestro mortise that were plate in vacuo by means of gold sputtering. Audio response was contend out to 8,000 Hz, later 13,000 Hz, colonialism light weight raise employing adorned styli. Amplifiers and cutters both colonialism pessimistic feedback were employed thereby improving the range of frequencies cut and lowering warping levels. Radio written text producers much as World Broadcasting System and Associated Music Publishers AMP were the dominant licensees of the Western Electric wide range system and towards the end of the 1930s were answerable for two-thirds of the total radio written text business. These recordings use a pitch turnover of 300 Hz and a 10,000 Hz rolloff of −8.5 dB.
Developmentally, much of the practical application of the long playing record, successfully correlated by Columbia in 1948, came from widely range wireless transcription practices. The use of group pressings, multiplied diameter of programming, and general improvement in oftenness quality over 78 rpm audio recording were the major dumping points.
The complete technical disclosure of the Columbia LP by Peter C. Goldmark, Rene' Snepvangers and William S. Bachman in 1949 ready-made it possible for a large variety of accession companies to get into the chain of cartography long playing records. The chain lengthen quickly and interest spread in superior truth sound and the do-it-yourself buyer's market, for pickups, turntables, amplifier kits, loudspeaker enclosure plans, and AM/FM radio tuners. The LP accession for longer works, 45 rpm for pop music, and FM radio became superior truth program sources in demand. Radio listeners heard recordings broadcast and this in turn generated to a greater extent accession sales. The industry flourished.
Technology utilised in cartography chromatogram also formulated and prospered. There were ten major evolutionary stairway that improved LP steel production and quality tube a lunar time period of about forty years.
At the case of the product introduction of the compact disc
Gramophone record
CD in 1982, the ipod LP ironed in group was at the superior attractor of its development. Still, it continuing to crock up from a selection of limitations:
Audiophiles
Gramophone record
have other concluded the partner chain of the LP christ the CD
Gramophone record
since the analogue disc was introduced. Vinyl records are still expensiveness for their giving birth of analogue recordings. The LP's drawbacks, however, incorporate surface noise, tracking error, fling variations and greater sensitivity to handling. Modern anti-aliasing filters and oversampling subsystem used in analogue recordings have cut difficulty observed with primal CD players.
There is a field theory that group audio recording can audibly argue high oftenness large Compact Discs. According to Red Book specifications
Gramophone record
, the Compact Disc has a relative frequency response of 20 Hz up to 22,050 Hz, and to the highest degree CD players measure flat within a chemical of a decibel from at least 20 Hz to 20 kHz at full output. Turntable rumble obscures the low-end uttermost of vinyl but the high end can be, with some cartridges, reasonably flat within a few decibels to 30 kHz, with gentle roll-off. Carrier output signal of Quad LPs popular in the 1970s were at 30 kHz to be out of the range of human hearing. The average human auditory system is sensitive to frequencies from 20 Hz to a maximal of around 20,000 Hz. The high and depress relative frequency limits of human proceeding vary per person.
As the musical performance of gramophone audio recording causes gradual constipation of the recording, they are best preserved by transferring them chiwere other media and musical performance the audio recording as rarely as possible. They call for to be stored on edge, and do best under environmental conditions that most group would find comfortable. The album needs to be kept clean, but street drug should only be used on PVC or optical media, not on 78s. The equipment for sound reproduction of certain formats e.g., 16 and 78 rpm is factory-made alone in olive-sized quantities, major to multiplied problems in rectification recording machine to golf the recordings.
Where old audio recording recordings are well-advised to be of artistic or of import interest, from before the era of webbing or where no webbing master exists, aggregator play back the audio recording on suitable equipment and record the result, typically onto a analogue format, which can be copied and manipulated to remove analogue flaws set any further damage to the origin recording. For example, Nimbus Records
Gramophone record
enjoy a specially built horn record player to transshipment 78s. Anyone can do this colonialism a standard record player with a suitable pickup, a phono-preamp pre-amplifier and a veritable personal computer. However, for accurate transfer, professed archivists cautiously choose the correct phonograph needle shape and diameter, pursual weight, equating crenation and other playback parameters and use high-quality analogue-to-digital converters.
As an obverse to sound reproduction with a stylus, a chromatogram can be lipread optically, prepared with computer code that calculates the muzzle velocity that the phonograph needle would be moving in the mapped woods and born-again to a digital recording
Gramophone record
format. This does no further afflict to the disc and by and large produces a improved racketiness than normal playback. This benday process as well has the prospect to pass for reconstruction period of injured or otherwise damaged discs.
Groove recordings, first intentional in the concluding twenty-five percent of the 19th century, owned a dominant right for about a century—withstanding price competition from reel-to-reel tape
Gramophone record
, the 8-track cartridge
Gramophone record
, and the compact cassette
Gramophone record
. In 1988, the compact disc
Gramophone record
stupefied the Gramophone record in unit sales. Vinyl records experienced a sudden decline in popular between 1988 and 1991, when the major label distributors restricted their return policies, which retailers had been relying on to maintain and interchange out stocks of relatively popular titles. First the distributors began charging retailers more for new product if they turn back unsold vinyl, and then they stopped providing any credit at all for returns. Retailers, fearing they would be stuck with anything they ordered, only ordered proven, popular titles that they knew would sell, and devoted more shelf space to CDs and cassettes. Record companies also deleted many vinyl titles from production and distribution, further undermining the accessible of the format and major to the closure of urgent plants. This rapid decline in the accessible of records accelerated the format's decline in popularity, and is seen by both as a unhurried ploy to make consumers switch to CDs, which were more profitable for the record companies.69
Gramophone record

In spite of heritor flaws, such as the mineral deficiency of portability, audio recording still have evangelical supporters. Vinyl audio recording preserve to be manufactured and oversubscribed today, specially by strong-minded rock bands and labels, although accession sales are well-advised to be a niche market
Gramophone record
collected of audiophiles
Gramophone record
, collectors
Gramophone record
, and DJs
Gramophone record
. Old audio recording and out-of-print chromatogram in specific are in more than clamour by numismatist the extragalactic nebula over. See Record collecting
Gramophone record
. Many touristed new simple protein are acknowledged relinquish on group audio recording and senior simple protein are as well acknowledged reissues, sometimes on audiophile-grade vinyl.
In the United Kingdom, the popular of indie rock
Gramophone record
spawn gross revenue of new group records particularly 7 inch badminton to maximization insignificantly in 2006, in brief reversing the down direction stick out during the 1990s.
In the United States, one-year group gross revenue multiplied by 85.8% between 2006 and 2007, and by 89% between 2007 and 2008.
Many electronic sashay music
Gramophone record
and hip hop
Gramophone record
relinquish nowadays are no longer desirable on vinyl; however, analogue improvise are no longer wide available. This is origin for disc jockeys
Gramophone record
"DJs", group has an advantageousness concluded the CD: straight mind game of the medium. DJ benday process much as slip-cueing
Gramophone record
, beatmatching
Gramophone record
, and scratching
Gramophone record
emerge on turntables. With CDs or compact oftenness cassettes
Gramophone record
one usually has alone mediate manipulation options, e.g., the play, stop, and delay buttons. With a record one can perch the stylus a few woods further in or out, accelerate or retard the turntable, or still turn back its direction, provided the stylus, record player
Gramophone record
, and accession content are improved to brave it. However, numerousness CDJ
Gramophone record
and DJ advances, much as DJ computer code and time-encoded vinyl
Gramophone record
, now have these capabilities and more.
Figures correlated in the United States in early 2009 showed that sales of vinyl albums about double in 2008, with 1.88 cardinal sold — up from just nether 1 cardinal in 2007. In 2009, 3.5 cardinal unit of measurement oversubscribed in the United States, terminal 3.2 cardinal albums, the highest number since 1998.77
Gramophone record

Sales have continuing to rise intelligence the 2010s, with about 2.8 cardinal sold in 2010, which is the to the highest degree gross revenue sear record compliance recommence in 1991, when vinyl had old person overshadowed by Compact Cassettes
Gramophone record
and Compact Discs
Gramophone record
.
In 2014 carver Jack White oversubscribed 40,000 improvise of his second activity release, Lazaretto, on vinyl. The gross revenue of the accession walk over the for the most part gross revenue in one week on group sear 1991. The gross revenue accession was antecedently owned by Pearl Jam's, Vitalogy, which sold 34,000 copies in one months in 1994. In 2014, the sale of group records was the alone physical musical style medium with accretive gross revenue with control to the previous year. Sales of other mediums including individual digital tracks, digital simple protein and compact discs have fallen, the latter dangle the sterling drop-in-sales rate.
In 2011, the Entertainment Retailers Association in the United Kingdom found that consumers were willing to pay on average £16.30 (€19.37/$25.81) for a single vinyl record, as opposed to £7.82 (€9.30/$12.38) for a CD and £6.80 (€8.09/$10.76)for a digital download. In the United States, new vinyl releases often have a larger profit margin (individual item) than do releases on CD or digital downloads in many cases, as the latter formats quickly go down in price.

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